Abdallah, Anouar (et. al.). For Rushdie; Essays by Arab and Muslim Writers in Defense of Free Speech.  Translated from French by Kevin Anderson and Kenneth Whitehead. New York: George Braziller, 1994.

Abedi, Mehdi and Fischer, Michael. Debating Muslims: Cultural Dialogues in Postmodernity and Tradition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Ahmed, Akbar. Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. London: Routledge, 1992.

Akhtar, Shabbir. Be Careful with Muhammad!; The Salman Rushdie Affair. London: Bellew, 1989.

Aklujkar, Vidyut. “Haroun and the Sea of Stories: Metamorphosis of an old Metaphor.” Commonwealth Novel in English 6:1-2 (Spring-Fall 1993): 1-12. 

Appignanesi, Lisa and Maitland, Sara. The Rushdie File. London: Fourth Estate, 1989.

Aravamudam, Srinivas. “‘Being God’s Postman Is No Fun, Yaar’: Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses.” Diacritics 19.2 (Summer 1989): 3-20.

Ashcroft, Bill and Griffiths, Gareth and Tiffin, Helen. The Empire Writes Back. London: Routledge, 1989. 

Attar, Farid ud-Din. The Conference of the Birds. Translated from Persian and introduced by Afkhan Darbandi and Dick Davis. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.

Awn, Peter. Satan’s Tragedy and Redemption: Iblis in Sufi Psychology. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1983.


Ball, John. Interview. “An Interview with Salman Rushdie.” Toronto South Asian Review 10.1 (Summer 1991): 30-37.   

Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India. Rupa: Calcutta, 1981.

Blake, William. William Blake, ed. J. Bronowski. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1958.

Booker, Keith. “Beauty and the Beast: Dualism as Despotism in the Fiction of Salman Rushdie.” English Literary History 57.4 (Winter 1990): 977-997.

-- “Finnegans Wake and The Satanic Verses: Two Modern Myths of the Fall.” CritiqueStudies in Contemporary Fiction 32.3 (Spring 1991): 190-207.

Borges, Jorge Luis. Labyrinths, ed. James Irby and Donald Yates. New York: New Directions, 1962.

Brennan, Timothy. Salman Rushdie & The Third World: Myths of the Nation. London: Macmillan, 1989.

-- “Shame’s Holy Book.” The Journal of Indian Writing in English 16.2 (July 1988): 210-225.

Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita. Translated from Russian by Mirra Ginsburg. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1967.


Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives, ed. Francis Robinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Chaudhuri, Una. Interview. “Imaginative Maps; Excerpts from a Conversation with Salman Rushdie.” Turnstile 2.1 (1990): 36-47.

-- “Writing the Raj Away.” Turnstile 2.1 (1990): 26-35.

Chaussee, Griffith. “A Textual Unicorn: Identity and Islamic Reference in Salman Rushdie’s Shame.” Toronto South Asian Review 8 (Spring 1990): 17-27.

Chuang TzeThe Writings of Chuang Tze.  In The Texts of Taoism. Translated from Chinese by James Legge. New York: Julian, 1959.

Corcoran, Marlena. “Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Narration.” The Iowa Review 20.1 (Winter 1990): 155-167.

Cotterell, Arthur. A Dictionary of World Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University press, 1986.

Cronenberg, David.  Interview. “Goodfellas: Two wise guys get together to fight the world’s famous media battle.” Shift (July-August 1995): 20-27.

Cundy, Catherine. “‘Rehearsing Voices’: Salman Rushdie’s Grimus.” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 27.1 (1992): 128-138.

-- Salman Rushdie. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996.


Dante, Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. Translated from Italian by Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam, 1986.

Dharker, Rani. Interview. “An Interview with Salman Rushdie.” New Quest 42 (November-December 1983): 351-360.

Dipple, Elizabeth. The Unresolvable Plot: Reading Contemporary Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Durix, Jean-Pierre. “The Artistic Journey in Salman Rushdie’s Shame.” World Literature Written in English 23.2 (Spring 1984): 451-463.

-- “‘The Gardener of Stories’: Salman Rushdie’s Haroun and the Sea of Stories.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 28.1 (1993): 114-122.

-- “Magic Realism in Midnight’s Children.” Commonwealth Essays and Studies 8.1 (1985): 57-63.

-- “The Magician of History: Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children.” In The Writer Written: The Artist and Creation in the New Literatures in English, 119-139. New York and Westport: Greenwood, 1987.

--  “Salman Rushdie’s Declaration of Kaleidoscopic Identity.” In Declarations of Cultural Independence in the English-Speaking World: A Symposium, ed. Luigi Sampietro, 173-184. Milan: D’Imperio Editore Novara, 1989.

E - F - G

Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas; Vol. II: From Gautama Buddha to the Triumph of Christianity. Translated from French by Willard Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1982.

-- A History of Religious Ideas; Vol. III: From Muhammad to the Age of Reforms. Translated from French by Willard Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985.

-- The Sacred and the Profane. Translated from French by Willard Trask. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1959.

Eliot, T.S. Collected Poems. London: Faber & Faber, 1963.

Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Vol. III. London: Luzac & Co., 1971.

Esposito, John. Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford, 1988.

Fletcher, M.D. “Rushdie’s Shame as Apologue.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 21.1 (1986): 120-132.

Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.

Glassé, Cyril. The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Harper: San Francisco, 1989.

Goonetilleke, D.C.R.A. Salman Rushdie. London: MacMillan, 1998.


Haffenden, John. Interview. “Salman Rushdie.” In Novelists in Interview, 231-261. London: Methuen.

Hamilton, Ian. “The First Life of Salman Rushdie.” The New Yorker (December 25, 1995-January 1, 1996): 90-113.

Harrison, James. “Reconstructing Midnight’s Children and Shame.” University of Toronto Quarterly 59.3 (Spring 1990): 399-412.

-- Salman Rushdie. New York: Twayne, 1992.

Hesse, Hermann. Magister Ludi. Translated from German by Richard and Clara Wilson, and with a Forward by Theodore Ziolkowski. New York: Bantam, 1970.

Hughes, Ted. Crow: from the Life and Songs of the Crow. London: Faber, 1970.

Hughes, Thomas. Dictionary of Islam. Rupa: Calcutta, 1988.

Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Oxford: Helicon, 1992.

I - J

Iyengar, Srinivasa. Indian Writing in English. Sixth edition. Delhi: Sterling, 1987.

Jasper, David. The Study of Literature and Religion. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

Johansen, Ib. “The Flight from the Enchanter: Reflections on Salman Rushdie’s Grimus.” Kunapipi 7.1 (1985): 20-32.

Joshi, Arun. The Last Labyrinth. Delhi: Orient, 1981.

Jussawalla, Feroza. “Rushdie’s Shame: Problems in Communication.” In Studies in Indian Fiction in English, ed. Balaram Gupta, 1-13. Gulbarga: JIWE Publications, 1987.


Kanaganayakam, C. “Myth and Fabulosity in Midnight’s Children.” Dalhousie Review 67.1 (Spring 1987): 86-98.

Keats, John. The Complete Poems, ed. John Barnard. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.

Khayyam, Omar. The Ruba’iyat (illustrated edition). Translated from Persian by Peter Avery and John Heath-Stubbs. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981.

Kho’i, Esmail. “Letter to Salman Rushdie” (poem). Toronto South Asian Review 8 (Spring 1990): 1-10.

King, Bruce. “The New Internationalism: Shiva Naipaul, Salman Rushdie, Buchi Emecheta, Timothy Mo and Kazuo Ishiguro.” In The British and Irish Novel Since 1960, ed. James Acheson, 192-211.  New York: St. Martin’s, 1991.

--  “Who Wrote The Satanic Verses?” World Literature Today 63.3 (Summer 1989): 433-435.

Kliever, Lonnie. “Polysymbolism and Modern Religiosity.” The Journal of Religion 59 (1979): 169-194.

Knonagel, Alex. “The Satanic Verses: Narrative Structure and Islamic Doctrine.” The International Fiction Review 18.2 (1991): 69-75.  

Koran. Translated from Arabic by N.J. Dawood. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1956.

Kunapipi.  Interview. “Midnight’s Children and Shame.” Vol. 7.1 (1985): 4-6.


Mann, Harveen. “‘Being Borne Across’: Translation and Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses.” Criticism 37 (Spring 1995): 281-308.

Marx, Karl. Marx’s Grundrisse. Translated from German by David McLellan. Bungay, Suffolk: Paladin 1973.

Mathur, O.P. “Sense and Sensibility in Shame.” In The Novels of Salman Rushdie, ed. R.K. Dhawan and G.R. Taneja, 85-93. New Delhi: Indian Society for Commonwealth Studies, 1992.

Mazrui, Ali. “Is The Satanic Verses a Satanic Novel? Moral Dilemmas of the Rushdie Affair.”  Michigan Quarterly Review 28.3 (Summer 1989): 347-371.

Mercantante, Anthony. The Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. New York: Facts on File, 1988.

Milton, John. Complete Poems and Major Prose. Indianapolis: Odyssey, 1957.

Myers, David. “From Satiric Farce to Tragic Epiphany: Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses.” The Commonwealth Review 2.1-2 (1990-1991): 144-167.

N - O - P

Nair, Sami. “Comment lire Les Versets Sataniques.” Esprit 155 (October 1989): 20-24.

Newsweek. Interview. “An Exclusive Talk With Salman Rushdie.” (February 12, 1990): 47-51.

O’Flaherty, Wendy. Dreams, Illusions and Other Realities. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1984.

-- Hindu Myths. Introduction to, translation of, and commentary on selected Sanskrit myths.  Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1975.

-- Śiva, the erotic Ascetic, London: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Parameswaran, Uma. The Perforated Sheet: Essays on Salman Rushdie’s Art. Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press, 1988

-- “Salman Rushdie’s Shame: An Overview of a Labyrinth.” In The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 1980s, ed. Viney Kirpal, 121-130. New Delhi: Allied, 1990.

Pattanayak, Chandrabhanu. Interview. “Interview with Salman Rushdie.” Literary Criterion 18.3 (1983): 19-22.

Pipes, Daniel. “The Ayatollah, the Novelist, and the West.” Commentary 87.6 (June 1989): 9-17.

-- The Rushdie Affair: The Novel, the Ayatollah, and the West. New York: Birch Lane, 1990.

The Poetic Edda. Translated from Old Norse, and introduced, by Lee Hollander.  Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.

Pourjavady, Narsollah and Wilson, Peter. The Drunken Universe; An Anthology of Persian Sufi Poetry.  Grand Rapids: Phanes, 1987.

Puhvel, Jaan, Comparative Mythology. Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1989.


Rao, Raja. The Serpent and the Rope. New Delhi: Orient 1960.

Rawson, Philip. The Art of Tantra. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.

Reddy, P. Bayapa. “Grimus: An Analysis.” In The Novels of Salman Rushdie, ed. R.K. Dhawan and G.R. Taneja, 5-9. New Delhi: Indian Society for Commonwealth Studies, 1992.

-- “Shame: A Point of View.” In The Novels of Salman Rushdie, ed. R.K. Dhawan and G.R. Taneja, 94-101. New Delhi: Indian Society for Commonwealth Studies, 1992.

Rig Veda. Selected and translated from Sanskrit by Wendy O’Flaherty. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981.

Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. ed. Jon Pareles and Patricia Romanowski. New York: Summit, 1983.

Rushdie, Salman. “After Midnight.” Vanity Fair (September 1987): 88-94. 

-- East, West. Toronto: Knopf, 1994.

-- “The Empire Writes Back with a Vengeance.” The Times (July 3, 1982): 8.

-- Grimus. London: Granta, 1975.

-- Haroun and the Sea of Stories. London: Granta, 1990.

-- Imaginary Homelands; Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. London: Granta, 1991.

-- Introduction to Home Front (by Derek Dishton and John Reardon). London: Jonathan Cape, 1984.

-- The Jaguar Smile. London: Picador, 1987.

-- Midnight’s Children. London: Picador, 1981.

-- “Midnight’s Children and Shame.” Kunapipi 7.1 (1985): 1-19.

-- The Moor’s Last Sigh. Toronto: Knopf, 1995.

-- The Satanic Verses. London: Penguin, 1988.

-- Shame. London: Picador, 1983.

-- The Wizard of Oz. London: British Film Institute, 1992.

-- “Zia Unmourned.” Nation (September 19, 1988): 188-189.

Russell, Jeffrey. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Ithaca: Cornell, 1977.

-- Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell, 1984.

-- Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World. Ithaca: Cornell, 1986.

-- Satan: The Early Christian Tradition. Ithaca: Cornell, 1981.

Ruthven, Malise. A Satanic Affair; Salman Rushdie and the Rage of Islam. London: Chatto & Windus, 1990.


Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1978.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

Scripsi.  Interview. “An Interview With Salman Rushdie.” Vol. 3.2-3 (1985): 107-126.

Shakespeare, William. King Lear. New York: Methuen, 1972.

-- Othello. New York: Methuen, 1958.

Slemon, “Magic Realism as Postcolonial Discourse.” In Magic Realism; Theory, History, Community, ed. Faris and Zamora, 407-426. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1995. 

Srivastava, Aruna. “‘The Empire Writes Back’: Language and History in Shame and Midnight’s Children.” Ariel 20.4 (October 1989): 62-78.

Stutley, James and Margaret. A Dictionary of Hinduism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977.

Suleri, Sara. “Contraband Histories: Salman Rushdie and the Embodiment of Blasphemy.” The Yale Review 78.4 (Summer 1989): 604-624.

Swann, Joseph. “‘East Is East and West Is West’? Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children as an Indian Novel.” In The New Indian Novel in English: A Study of the 1980s, ed. Viney Kirpal, 251-262. New Delhi: Allied, 1990.

Syed, Mujeebuddin. “Warped Mythologies: Salman Rushdie’s Grimus.” Ariel 25.4 (October 1994): 135-151.

T - U - V

Tales from The Thousand and One Nights. Selected and translated from Arabic by N.J. Dawood. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.

Three Gothic Novels. Edited by Peter Fairclough. London: Penguin, 1968.

The Upanishads. Selected and translated from Sanskrit by Juan Mascaro. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965.

van Buitenen, J.A.B. Tales of Ancient India. Selected and translated from the Sanskrit collection, Ocean of the Rivers of the Great Romance. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1959.

Vitray-Meyerovitch, Eva de. Rumi and Sufism. Translated from French by Simone Fattal. Sausalito: Post-Apollo, 1987.

W - Z

Wachtel, Eleanor. “Salman Rushdie.” In Writers & Company; In Conversation with CBC Radio’s Eleanor Wachtel, 138-158. Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.

Wajsbrot, Cécile. “Salman Rushdie: Utiliser une technique qui permette à Dieu d’exister.” La Quinzaine Littéraire 449 (16-31 October 1985): 22.

Walker, Bejamin. The Hindu World. Vol. 1. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1968.

Watson-Williams, Helen. “An Antique Land: Salman Rushdie’s Shame.” Westerly 29.4 (December 1984): 37-45.

Weatherby, William. Salman Rushdie: Sentenced to Death. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1990.

Webster, Richard. A Brief History of Blasphemy: Liberalism, Censorship and ‘The Satanic Verses.’  Southwold: Orwell, 1990.

White, H. Elements of Universal History, on a New and Systematic Plan, from the Earliest Times to the Middle of 1862. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1865.

Whitman, Walt. Complete Poetry and Selected Prose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959.

Zakaria, Rafiq. The Struggle Within Islam; the Conflict Between Religion and Politics. London: Penguin, 1989.

Ziolkowski, Theodore. “Religion and Literature in a Secular Age: The Critic’s Dilemma.” The Journal of Religion 59 (1979): 18-34.


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